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AnchorBackground The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. Bulgaria regained its independence in 1878, but having fought on the losing side in both World Wars, it fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People’s Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. Today, reforms and democratization keep Bulgaria on a path toward eventual integration into NATO and the EU – with which it began accession negotiations in 2000.


Location Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey
Geographic coordinates 43 00 N, 25 00 E
Area total: 110,910 sq km
water: 360 sq km
land: 110,550 sq km
Land boundaries total: 1,808 km
border countries: Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km, Turkey 240 km
Coastline 354 km
Climate temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
Elevation extremes lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Musala 2,925 m
Land use arable land: 39%
permanent crops: 1.8%
other: 59.2% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land 8,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards earthquakes, landslides
Environment – international agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography – note Strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia


Population 7,621,337 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 0-14 years: 14.6% (male 572,961; female 543,004)
15-64 years: 68.5% (male 2,569,199; female 2,648,461)
65 years and over: 16.9% (male 540,109; female 747,603) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate -1.11% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 8.05 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 14.42 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate total population: 71.5 years
female: 75.22 years (2002 est.)
male: 67.98 years
Total fertility rate 1.13 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate
0.01% (2002 est.)
Nationality noun: Bulgarian(s)
adjective: Bulgarian
Ethnic groups Bulgarian 83.6%, Turk 9.5%, Roma 4.6%, other 2.3% (including Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian) (1998)
Religions Bulgarian Orthodox 83.8%, Muslim 12.1%, Roman Catholic 1.7%, Jewish 0.1%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 2.3% (1998)
Languages Bulgarian, secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic breakdown
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1999)


Country name conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
Conventional short form: Bulgaria
Government type 28 provinces (oblasti, singular – oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya, Sofiya-Grad, Stara Zagora, Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol
Independence 3 March 1878 (from Ottoman Empire)
National holiday Adopted 12 July 1991
Legal system Civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch chief of state: President Georgi PURVANOV (since 22 January 2002); Vice President Angel MARIN (since 22 January 2002)
head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA (since 24 July 2001); Deputy Prime Ministers Nikolay VASILEV (since 24 July 2001), Kostadin PASKALEV (since 24 July 2001), and Lidiya SHULEVA (since 24 July 2001)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 11 November and 18 November 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister
election results: Georgi PURVANOV elected president; percent of vote – Georgi PURVANOV 54.13%, Petar STOYANOV 45.87%
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie (240 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 17 June 2001 (next to be held NA June 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party – NMS2 42.74%, UtdDF 18.18%, CFB 17.15%, MRF 7.45%; seats by party – NMS2 120, UtdDF 51, CFB 48, MRF 21; note – seating as of March 2003 – NMS2 110, UtdDF 50, CFB 48, MRF 20, independents 12
Judicial branch Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of Cassation; Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed or elected for nine-year terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 other members; responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors, and investigating magistrates in the justice system; members of the Supreme Judicial Council elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by the National Assembly and 11 by bodies of the judiciary)
Political parties and leaders
Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV]; Coalition for Bulgaria or CfB (coalition of parties dominated by BSP) [Sergei STANISHEV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or VMRO [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]; Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Ahmed DOGAN]; National Movement for Simeon II or NMS2 [Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA]; People’s Union or PU (includes Bulgarian Agrarian National Union and Democratic Party) [Anastasiya MOZER]; St. George’s Day [Lyuben DILOV, Jr.]; Union of Democratic Forces or UDF [Ekaterina NADEZHDA]; Union of Free Democrats or UFD [Stefan SOFIYANSKI]; United Democratic Forces or UtdDF (a coalition between the UDF and PU, dominated by the former)
Political pressure groups and leaders
Agrarian movement; Bulgarian Democratic Center; Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB; Democratic Alliance for the Republic or DAR; New Union for Democracy or NUD; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas
International organization participation
ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC


Economy – overview Bulgaria, a former communist country striving to enter the European Union, has experienced macroeconomic stability and positive growth rates since a major economic downturn in 1996 led to the fall of the then socialist government. A $300 million stand-by agreement negotiated with the IMF at the end of 2001 will help the government maintain economic stability as it seeks to overcome high rates of poverty and unemployment and, at the same time, cut the budget deficit and contain inflation.
GDP – real growth rate 3.4% (2002 est.)
GDP – composition by sector
agriculture: 14%
industry: 29%
services: 58% (2001)
Population below poverty line
35% (2000 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
5.9% (2002 est.)
Labor force 3.83 million (2000 est.)
Labor force – by occupation
agriculture 26%, industry 31%, services 43% (1998 est.)
Industries electricity, gas and water; food, beverages and tobacco; machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel
Electricity – production 38.84 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity – production by source
fossil fuel: 48%
hydro: 8%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 44%
Electricity – exports 3.2 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture – products vegetables, fruits, tobacco, livestock, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets
Exports $5.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports – commodities
Exports – partners Italy 14%, Turkey 10%, Germany 9%, Greece 8%, Serbia and Montenegro 8% (2001)
Imports $6.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports – commodities fuels, minerals, and raw materials; machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; food, textiles
Imports – partners Russia 19.9%, Germany 15.3%, Italy 9.6%, France 6.0% (2001)
Currency lev (BGL)
Currency code BGN


Telephones – main lines in use 3,186,731 (2001) *raising rapidly
Telephones – mobile cellular
Near 1,800,000 *raising rapidly
Telephone system general assessment: extensive but antiquated
domestic: more than two-thirds of the lines are residential; telephone service is available in most villages; a fairly modern digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers in most of the regions, the others are connected by digital microwave radio relay
international: direct dialing to 58 countries; satellite earth stations – 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 2 Intelsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions)
Radios Near 5.1 million (est. 2002)
Televisions Near 4.5 million (est. 2002)
Internet country code .bg
Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
More than 400
*raising rapidly
Internet users Over 1,000,000 * raising rapidly


Railways total: 4,294 km
standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435-m gauge (2,710 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (2002)
Highways total: 37,288 km
paved: 33,786 km (including 324 km of expressways)
unpaved: 3,502 km (2001)
Waterways 470 km (1987)
Pipelines petroleum products 525 km; natural gas 1,500 km (1999) *new developments underway
Ports and harbors Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin
Merchant marine total: 77 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 881,758 GRT/1,312,833 DWT
ships by type: bulk 43, cargo 15, chemical tanker 4, container 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1 (2002 est.)
Airports 3 Major Civil International Airports: Sofia, Varna, Bourgas *new developments underway


Military branches
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces (subordinate to Ministry of Defense), Internal Forces (subordinate to Ministry of Interior), Civil Defense Forces (subordinate to the president)
Military manpower – military age
19 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower – availability
males age 15-49: 1,873,052 (2002 est.)
Military manpower – fit for military service
males age 15-49: 1,566,816 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures – dollar figure
$356 million (FY02)
Military expenditures – percent of GDP
2.7% (FY02)

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